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|Статья студента из Узбекистана Форуха Балтабаева на английском языке
Political Life of Qipchak tribes in the Early and Developed Middle Ages. Concerning the theme of ?Qipchak confederation? or Qipchak state?
The information about the aggressive movements of qipchak tribes which had a big political power and at the same time social power among Turkish nomadic tribes lived in the northern part of Central Asia from the beginning of XII century, is frequently met in the ancient Turkish written sources, Russian almanacs and Arabic, Persian sources. It is difficult to say some definite ideas about the early invasions of qipchak tribes. Because there is no real information about them. As it is given in the sources, the ethnic term ?qipchak? is first met in Uygur scripts. The information given in this script was taken from the words of the founder of Uyg?ur Haqaan Moin-chur, for instance it states that ?turkish and qipchaks ruled us for 50 years? . Here the name ? qipchak? is mentioned as a part of the tele tribe which was called ?Seyanto? at that time.
Seyantos attempts to establish control inside the Asia was first stopped be northern tyusyu tribes, later by yagluklar-uygur tribes. And this situation made Seyantos to leave the territory of Mongolia and move to the west, more exactly to Jungoriya, now this area is in the deserts of Qazag?iston. So, at the end of the VIII century qipchaks came to the places which now known as Qazakhistan from Mongolia through Jungoriya. But qipchaks real military movements can be directly connected to X-XII centuries. By the XII century qipchaks established their rulement in the cost of Irtish River and in the regions of Central Qazagistan in the east, and in the west they went till the river Dunay. By this time Turkish tribes were uniting to the particular political parties. However, by the XI century different big Turkish unions were formed in Central Asia and In Eastern Siberia. In the north uguzs, in the west qarluq and uyg?urs, in the west and in the north-east qipchaks had their own confederations. Qipchaks next invasions were to the west; more specifically they were directed to the Southern Russian territories. By the XII century qipchaks conquered Southern Tmutarkan Principalities which had pretty strong political power. Continues relationship of Turkish tribes with Russian principalities resulted in a direct integration of qipchaks and other Turkish tribes in the ethnic formation of Russian nation. One of the divisions of Kanglis, bajnaks seems to be appeared in Russian territories in the XI century. In Russian almanacs of X-XII centuries reports some information about other Turkish tribes other then bajnaks and qipchaks, for instance ?Qoraqalpoqs? which were named ?black caps? . Qipchaks appeared in the Khorazm borders at the 1st half of XI century, more exactly in 1030.Knorazm?s King Altintash (1017-1031) wrote about this in his diaries. Till Mongol invasion qipchaks were the tribes who had big reputation in Khorazm.Khorazmshax takan?s wife, Muhammad Khorazshahs mother Turkon Hotun was the daughter of qipchak king .In general qipchaks had a big role in Khorazmshax?s castle.
An-Nasaviy wrote that ?when the authority was inherited to Muhammad by his father qipchaks and others came to worship him? .
By Xi century qipchaks appeared around Taroz. It is known that at that the city was belonged to qarluqs.The war between qarluqs and qipchaks ended up with the victory of qipchak Khan. In order to pasture bajnaks who lived in the north-west, qipchaks made an agreement with o?guzs. Qipchaks this movement as it is stated in Russian almanacs brought to the appearance of bajnaks in the Russian territories. Later on o?guzs ( in the Russian sources they call oguzs? Turkish?) and qipchaks also came to these deserts. It is obvious that all these conditions were connected with the nomadic life style.
In 1061, for the first time qipchaks battled with Russian warriors. Qipchaks leader Sharkhan came across with the Russian army forces. In 1068 qipchaqs under the leadership of Sharkhon conquered the united forces of Russian principlaities of Izyaslav, Vsevolod and Svyastoslav in the Russian deserts. As a result in 1068 they signed a treaty and Svyastoslav?s son married to Sharkhans daughter. When we take into account that Izyaslav ruled in Kiyev, Novgorod, Svyatoslav in Chernigova and in southern territories, and Vsevolod in Rostov- Suzdel, we may easily know how big the qipchaks area of influence was. This event, as it was said before brought to the participation of most Turkish tribes under the name ?qipchak?in XI-XIII centuries with early formation of Slavonic ethnic group as a nation. Later as a result of non-stop movements to the west, qipchaks arrived to the territories of Vizantiyan Empire which was considered as the greatest empire in the Eastern Europe. In the 10?s of XII century qipchaks supported the strike against the Vizantian Empire by bulgars. Because the leaders of these strike brothers Petr and Asen were qipchaks.In 1187 Asen I who was qipchak sat on the throne of Bulgaria. Exactly at this time in Azerbaijan the movement of Ildenizid began. The leader of this movement Shamsiddin Ildeniz drew in some qipchak tribes. Besides, in these centuries King David of Gruziya by the request of Quruvchi invited nearly 50.000 families and they moved to Gruziya. King?s real aim was to defend the country?s borders from saljuqs. He even married to one of the qipchak princess. Qipchaks created qipchaks confederation as a result of broad political-social movements. Many historians call this union as a qipchak state. But according to Bartold?s opinion, qipchaks never had their own state, and one qipchak king never ruled another qipchak tribes. In contrast, the word qipchak always meant general ethnic-cultural group and union that are united to one general language and culture.
In conclusion, qipchak confederation which is ethnic-cultural union that was founded in Northern deserts of Central Asia in the XI-XII centuries created very broad political movements. These movements influenced greatly to the political life of some states in the territory of Movaraunnahr and Russia.
1 Many historians recommend calling qipchak confederation as ?qipchak state?. Look at: History of Kazakhstan. Alma ? Ata.1949yr.Page 83.From this point of view we decided to use the term qipchak State as well as qipchak confederation. We will talk about more about this later.
2 History of Kazakhstan. Nations and Cultures. Alma-ata.2001yr.Page 47
3 There(from the same source)
4 There( from the same source)
5 History of Kazakhstan. Alma-ata. 1949yr page 49. Here we have to mention that many historians border qipchaks western destinations till the River Dnepr. But founding of the Early and Developed Middle Ages Turkish scripts in the costs of Dunay and from the information given in the Russian almanacs about desert tribes which lived in the shores of Dunay river confirms that qipchak tribes went until the shores of Dunay River.
6 History of Uzbekistan. Page 346
7 www.vostlik.thietmat.ru/ about the origin of Russian nation.
8 History of Kazakhstan. Alma-ata. 1949 yr.Page 85
9 www.vostlik.ru/ Expansion of qipchak tribes. Russians in the XII-XIII centuries.
10 There. But as historian Juvayniy reports Turkon Hotun was from Knagli?s tribe.
11 There ( from the same source)
12 www.vostlik.ru Expansion of qipchak tribes. Russians in the XII-XIII centuries. But in many literatures it is said that bajnaks and uguzs were confederates. Look at: Nations of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. 1965 yr. Page 83. Map.
13 www.vostlik.ru/ Expansion of qipchak tribes. Russians in the XII-XIII centuries
14 Presyankov. A. e. Principality laws in ancient Russia. Historical studies of X-XIII century. 1909.
15 www.vostlik.ru/ Expansion of qipchak tribes. Russians in the XII-XIII centuries.
16 There( from the same source)
17 There ( from the same source)
18 V.V. Bartold. Soch. T. 1-9M.1961-1976. Page 99. As well as, History of Kazakhstan. Nations and Cultures. Alma-ata. 2001yr. Page 48.
19 History of Kazakhstan. Nations and Cultures. Alma-Ata. 2001yr. Page 48